Philadelphia Museum of Art
This edition of the PMA Bulletin was published on the occasion of the exhibition The Fairmount Water Works, 1812-1911 (July 23-September 25, 1988). The original publication contains many illustrations and informative captions, a checklist of the exhibition, and a preface by Anne d'Harnoncourt, none of which is included below. (Click here to view the original Bulletin cover.)
I am working on a PDF version to reproduce this Bulletin with all the captions and illustrations. Besides negotiating this with PMA and the owners of the artwork depicted, I need to be able to make the illustrations clear while making the file a reasonably downloadable size. Any advice?
Even without the illustrations, the following text stands as the best and most complete history of Fairmount, from Jane Mork Gibson, the site's most knowledgeable historian.
The History of Philadelphia's Watersheds and Sewers
Compiled by Adam Levine
Philadelphia Water Department
THE FAIRMOUNT WATER WORKS
The Fairmount Water Works occupy
a unique position in the iconography of nineteenth-century Philadelphia. In the
early part of the century it illustrated the romantic concepts of the era and
was celebrated as a prime example of the blending of nature and technology. The
century witnessed the extension of its surroundings into a glorious park and the
introduction of ever more efficient technology, but ended with distress and disrepair
of the facility, anticipating its impending abandonment as a waterworks in 1911.
Many persons were instrumental in the creation
and the operation of Fairmount Water Works. Most noted among them were Frederick
Graff (1774-1847) and his son, Frederic Graff, Jr. (1817-1890). As a young man,
the elder Graff was an assistant to the architect and engineer Benjamin Henry
Latrobe. Graff served as superintendent of the first Philadelphia Waterworks at
Centre Square, the site today of City Hall, from 1805 and continued at Fairmount
until his death in 1847. Responsible for the design of the Fairmount Water Works
facility-the buildings, most of the machinery, the distribution system, the gardens
immediately surrounding the waterworks--he, in effect, ran the waterworks. Graff,
Jr., continued the tradition, serving from 1847 to 1856 and again from 1867 to
1872, becoming a leading civil engineer in his own right, and playing a major
role in the development of Fairmount Park.
The first step in constructing a water-powered system at Fairmount involved damming the Schuylkill River. In 1819 an opportunity presented itself that seemed to be the solution to the city's water-supply problem both for the present and for the future--converting Fairmount Water Works to water power, a most inexpensive source of power. In this endeavor, the activities of the Watering Committee were influenced by outside events. Josiah White, a local manufacturer, who with Joseph Gillingham owned the water-power rights at East Falls on the Schuylkill River, had proposed the construction of a dam at or near Fairmount in conjunction with the city in order to harness the abundant water power but had met with no success. In 1815 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania granted a franchise to the Schuylkill Navigation Company to erect dams and canals, but the company found itself in financial difficulty by the time the final canal and lock were to be constructed near Fairmount. This final stage in the construction of the Schuylkill Navigation Company's slackwater canal system was the impetus for the shift to water power for the waterworks.
A plan was developed for the city to purchase the rights to the water power, to throw a dam across the Schuylkill River at Fairmount, and to construct a canal and locks for the Navigation Company, guaranteeing to maintain a sufficient water level at the dam for lockage. The city would have an ample supply of water both for distribution and for power to turn waterwheels, thus operating the pumps without the continual, exorbitant expense for fuel. With such a dam, the water would be backed up to the normal fall [Page 18] line at East Falls, creating the Fairmount pool, an extensive slackwater pond for water storage and recreation, which was to be utilized by the rowing clubs, or what was called the Schuylkill Navy in later years. Not only would this plan yield a good return to the city but additional revenue could be obtained by selling surplus water to nearby districts.
The Watering Committee realized that if the city failed to act at this time and if a dam were to be constructed by another party at a different location, the opportunity would forever be lost for the city to harness the Schuylkill River's water power. Members of the committee and Graff traveled to the Gilpin paper mills on the Brandywine River to observe newly installed breast wheels--wheels that receive water in buckets higher than is customary on undershot wheels--which were reported to be highly efficient in similar conditions. Led by Chairman Joseph S. Lewis, the Watering Committee promptly decided to undertake the project of converting to water power at Fairmount. At this time, according to Graff, except for the dam and the waterwheel, no thought was given to the "specific plan or design...with regard to the buildings, or the location or form of any part of the works."  There was no prototype for the scale and configuration of the kind of structure that would be needed to contain multiple waterwheels, so Graff set out to design the mill house through which the water would flow. His drawings show his indebtedness to Latrobe in the neoclassical exterior design of buildings. The complex was designed to harmonize with the surroundings [Page 19] and be pleasing to the eye. A neoclassical effect was provided by the small templelike structures placed at each end, which provided needed administrative space.
The mill house was a monumental structure 238 feet long, situated along the rocky east bank of the river, which required extensive blasting to construct. Graff never lost sight of the function of the works, and his layout of the interior was simple and efficient. The mill house was divided into twelve so-called apartments, eight for wheels and four for the pumps. At first only three wheels were installed, although space was provided for eight fifteen-foot-wide breast wheels. Each wheel operated a pump placed almost horizontally, which was activated by a connecting rod attached to a crank on the waterwheel, connected to the shaft of the waterwheel. Because the Schuylkill is a tidal river at [Page 20] Fairmount, the water in the tailrace, where water exits from the waterwheels, rises and falls with the tide. The bottoms of the waterwheels were placed two feet below high water and could operate in up to sixteen inches of backwater; thus the wheels were necessarily idle twice a day during high tide, and the pumps also remained idle.
Experts were called upon for the design of the Fairmount dam. Only a few years earlier, White noted that there had never been a dam attempted across such a wide expanse of a river with the peculiarities of the Schuylkill.  Not only was the river subject to sudden freshets, or floods, but in the winter ice breaking up could do extensive damage. Capt. Ariel Cooley of Chicopee, Massachusetts, was just completing the Flat Rock Dam above Manayunk for the Schuylkill Navigation Company, and it was his proposal that was accepted by the Watering Committee.
In order to direct destructive currents of the river away from the mill house on the east bank, the dam was laid out diagonally upstream in a line 1,204 feet long from the mill house to the west bank, where it had been determined that the canal would be located. As it neared its western terminus where it joined the guard locks of the canal, the dam made a sharp angle to permit the breaking up of sheets of ice when they reached the overfall of the [Page 21] dam. (In later years, damage from ice was prevented by a guard pier constructed on the eastern side of the river to protect the entrance to the millrace itself.) The dam was built of cribs of hickory logs filled with stone that were sunk in the river and fastened to each other and to the rock bed of the river. At the east bank, a mound dam 270 feet long was constructed because the riverbed at that location consisted of eleven feet of mud above the rock bottom, allowing no possibility of anchoring a structure of any kind. Beyond this three head arches formed a bridge, 104 feet overall, with gates that controlled the entrance to the millrace, or forebay. The millrace had to be cut out of solid rock and was 419 feet long, 90 feet wide, and from 16 to 60 feet deep.
The councils approved the plan on April 8, 1819, and work was started on the dam ten days later. It was 1821 before the last crib was put in place, and July 23, 1821, saw the first water over the dam. The first wheel went into operation July 1, 1822.
At the time of the conversion of Fairmount Water Works from steam to water power, Philadelphia was actively promoting industry and commerce in Pennsylvania in an effort to compete successfully with other East Coast states for linkage and trade with the developing western lands on the Ohio River. One of the proposals called for a canal to cross the city from the Schuylkill to the Delaware River, with a Schuylkill Navigation Company canal lock at Fairmount on the east bank. Although this earlier plan had been discarded and the canal lock was constructed on the west bank, the Watering Committee continued to think in terms of profiting from the surplus water power by extending the millrace on the east bank of the river and by building or leasing factories there to purchase the power. Graff made drawings that show several plans for an industrial complex south of the engine house, but no mills or factories were ever built. Legal difficulties arose concerning water rights of persons from whom the city had purchased land, and the geological formations of the area were such that additional blasting for a canal on the east bank would have been extremely difficult and imminently dangerous to the existing structures. The plans to create an industrial complex next to the waterworks were abandoned by 1829. Happily, the area was developed as the south garden within six years.
With the construction of the mill house and the adoption of water power, Fairmount entered a new era. The employment of water power proved a great success, enabling the city to reverse the financial losses of previous years; the development of the gardens was also a fortuitous decision.
The garden in the area south of the engine house and the esplanade below, where boats docked, were completed by 1835. Several factors contributed to this development over a period of a few years. By the time plans to industrialize the site had been abandoned, the Watering Committee had begun filling in the quarry hole, constructing a retaining wall, and building up and leveling off the area from the engine house to the Upper Ferry Bridge. Walkways around the reservoir and plantings to hold the soil had been established, and extensive repairs were made to the engine house following the removal of the steam engines in 1832. Philadelphia's public gardens were popular places for recreational activities, and the natural beauty of the waterworks at the edge of the city, together with its neoclassical structures and attractive garden, had enormous appeal in an age that embraced the romantic concept of taming nature for the use of man without destroying it. Also, adjacent to the garden, another graceful engineering wonder spanned the Schuylkill River in the form of Lewis Wernwag's Upper Ferry Bridge, called the Colossus of Fairmount, astride a major waterway.
The south garden was laid out with geometrically ordered walks and plantings, a marble fountain was placed at the center, and ornamental railings were erected along the retaining wall and on the walkway that led up the side [Page 25] of the hill to the reservoir, with a gazebo built on a resting platform halfway up. The interior of the engine house was redesigned as an attractive hall and outfitted with benches to become a public saloon selling refreshments to visitors to the site; the portico on the river side was added in 1835. When the opportunity arose for the city to purchase additional land from the Lancaster Bridge Company, which operated the tollhouse at Upper Ferry Bridge, the garden was extended to Callowhill Street. Meanwhile, at the northern end of the works, the walkway along the mound dam was improved so that people could walk to its end, where another gazebo was constructed from which visitors could look out over the river and, if the water was high, watch the overfall of the dam--a sight that in the eyes of the engineer demonstrated a power to be harnessed but to the passerby represented the romantic movement of primeval forces.
Seeing the waterwheels at full force was a highlight of a visit to the works. The interior of the mill house was designed so that the public could observe the machinery in operation, with two entrances leading to a gallery from which to view the massive wheels--fifteen feet wide and fifteen to [Page 26] eighteen feet in diameter--as water flowed into their buckets and the wheels silently turned, activating connecting rods that moved the pistons in the cylinders of the pumps, drawing water from the individual forebays, or flumes, allotted to them. Visitors found an endless fascination in the practically noiseless flowing of the water, the turning of the wheels, and the movement of the pumps.
Describing a visit to Fairmount in 1840, Thomas Ewbank, inventor and manufacturer, wrote:
It is impossible to examine these works without paying homage to the science and skill displayed in their design and execution; in these respects no hydraulic works in the Union can compete, nor do we believe they are excelled by any in the world. Not the smallest leak in any of the joints was discovered; and, with the exception of the water rushing on the wheels, the whole operation of forcing up daily millions of gallons into the reservoirs on the mount, and thus furnishing in abundance one of the first necessaries of life to an immense population-was performed with less noise than is ordinarily made in working a smith's bellows! The picturesque location, the neatness that reigns in the buildings, the walks around the reservoirs and the grounds at large, with the beauty of the surrounding scenery, render the name of this place singularly appropriate. 
By 1843 there was a full complement of eight breast wheels in the mill house. The original three wheels were made of wood, designed by Thomas Oakes and constructed by millwright Drury Bromley, both of whom had worked previously in England with John Smeaton, a prominent engineer. The five other wheels were made of cast iron, with wood buckets, designed by Graff and built by members of the mechanics' community in Philadelphia: Rush and Muhlenberg of Oliver Evans's Mars Works, Levi Morris, and Merrick & Towne Company. The I. P. Morris Company replaced the first three wheels in 1846 with wheels of the original design. The pumps were designed by Graff and built by members of the same group.
The atmosphere of the waterworks was one of quiet beauty, and the additions to nature included ornamental sculpture, which was strategically placed in, at, and on the buildings and gardens. The sculptor William Rush was chairman of the Watering Committee's Building Committee in 1822 and an active member of the Watering Committee from its early years until 1826, and his son served as registrar. Two carved figures by Rush were commissioned to be placed over the entranceways to the mill house, Allegory of the Schuylkill River in Its Improved State (The Schuylkill Chained) and Allegory of the Waterworks (The Schuylkill Freed). His white-painted wooden sculpture Allegory of the Schuylkill River, a graceful figure of a woman sometimes called Water Nymph and Bittern, was moved to Fairmount from Centre Square in 1829 and placed at the base of the hill, on the edge of the millrace, where it [Page 28] was in strong contrast with the black rocks that rose behind it to the reservoir. A figure of Mercury by Rush was mounted atop a gazebo. Other statuary that adorned the garden included a marble statue of Diana at the foot of the walkway to the reservoir and the marble Boy and Dolphin placed in the center of the marble fountain about 1835. 
The golden age at Fairmount Water Works covers the period roughly from 1830 to 1850. Receipts were well over expenditures, the waterwheels were operating efficiently, and the public was enthusiastically responsive to the well-designed buildings and the picturesque setting. During this time European visitors were greatly impressed with the beauty and the power of the works, especially since it had been conceived and built in this country by locally trained engineers. Frances Trollope had high praise for Fairmount as she recorded her visit to the waterworks in 1830:
The water-works of Philadelphia have not yet perhaps as wide extended fame as those of Marley [at Versailles], but they are not less deserving it. At a most beautiful point of the Schuylkill River the water has been forced up into a magnificent reservoir, ample and elevated enough to send it through the whole city. The vast yet simple machinery by which this is achieved is open to the public, who resort in such numbers to see it, that several evening stages run from Philadelphia to Fair Mount for their accommodation. But interesting and curious as this machinery is, Fair Mount would not be so attractive had it not something else to offer. It is, in truth, one of the very prettiest spots the eye can look upon. A broad wear [weir] is thrown across the Schuylkill, which produces the sound and look of a cascade. ...The works themselves are enclosed in a simple but very handsome building of freestone, which has an extended front opening upon a terrace, which overhangs the river: behind the building, and divided from it only by a lawn, rises a lofty wall of solid lime-stone rock, which has, at one or two points, been cut into, for the passage of the water into the noble reservoir above. From the crevices of this rock the catalpa was everywhere pushing forth, covered with its beautiful blossom. ...At another point, a portion of the water in its upward way to the reservoir is permitted to spring forth in a perpetual jet d'eau, that returns in a silver shower upon the head of a marble naiad of snowy whiteness. The statue [Rush's Allegory of the Schuylkill River] is not the work of Phidias, but its dark, rocky back-ground, the flowery catalpas which shadow it, and the bright shower through which it shews itself, altogether make the scene one of singular beauty. 
In his American Notes for General Circulation, Charles Dickens recorded his 1840 visit to Fairmount:
Philadelphia is most bountifully provided with fresh water, which is showered and jerked about, and turned on, and poured off everywhere. The Water-works, which are [Page 29] on a height near the city, are no less ornamental than useful, being tastefully laid out as a public garden, and kept in the best and neatest order. The river is dammed at this point, and forced by its own power into certain high tanks or reservoirs, whence the whole city, to the top stories of the houses, is supplied at a very trifling expense.
By the 1830s Fairmount had become the prototype of a water-supply system for growing urban areas in the United States and abroad. Graff acted as consultant for more than thirty-seven other waterworks, and Philadelphia became the "Mecca of the hydraulic engineer, " according to Emile Geyelin in 1891.  In 1844 the system supplied an average of 5.3 million gallons of water per day to 28,082 water tenants, expenditures were $29,713, and the amount paid into the treasury was $151,501. This marked a high point for revenues, [Page 30] generated, in part, by water rates paid by neighboring districts where assessments were fifty percent above the rates paid by Philadelphians.
As the population of both the city and the districts increased, the demand by the districts for cheaper rates and the need for an additional supply of water resulted in the construction of other pumping stations by the districts, taking water from the Fairmount pool. These pumping stations employed the latest in steam engines for power, and the city objected to the lowering of the level of water at the dam caused by the new facilities. Although the city contended that it possessed through purchase all the rights to the Schuylkill water, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled against the city in 1847, stating that water in its natural course has from earliest times been for common domestic use, as opposed to being a power source, and thus belonged to all the municipalities bordering the river. 
The Schuylkill River provided plentiful water through most of the year, but in the late summer and fall there was not enough to keep the wheels turning and the pumps running all the time while continuing to provide sufficient water at Fairmount for lockage on the canal. From the beginning, the city had [Page 31] experienced major differences with the Schuylkill Navigation Company in trying to control the loss of water through leakage or improper operation of the locks at Fairmount. Joseph Lewis, who had been chairman of the Watering Committee for seven years, became the president of the Schuylkill Navigation Company in 1825 and its champion in bitter struggles with the city over control of the water. During the 1830s and 1840s Graff diligently fought incursions on the Fairmount Water Works by many other projects such as the proposed routing of railways, plans for additional canals, and even the widening of a street that would encroach on the guard pier.
Fairmount Park was established as a way to maintain a potable water supply for the city. In the early part of the nineteenth century, the area near Fairmount had been a bucolic retreat, and the river was bordered by the country seats of the gentry, not by industrial complexes. As East Falls, Manayunk, Conshohocken, Pottsville, and other municipalities built factories and other industrial enterprises, they used the river not only for transport and power but as a convenient sewer. Testing of the water in the 1840s revealed levels of pollution that were not as high as those reported in other urban water supplies; however, when the property at Lemon Hill came on the market in 1844, the city was convinced that this was an opportunity to see that the land immediately above the works, at least, would be protected from industrial growth, and Lemon Hill was purchased for that reason.
Since the days of William Penn when public squares were laid out within the city, there had been a recognition of the value of open space in an urban area. Therefore, when Graff, Jr., took over as superintendent of Fairmount Water Works on his father's death in 1847, it was no surprise that he would press for an increase in the protected area for the waterworks supply and recognize the value of an extension of the recreational area that had been started at the south garden years before. He recommended the extension in a public statement in 1851, finally gaining public support for action in 1855. When the Fairmount Park Commission was established in 1867, Graff, Jr., as chief engineer of the Water Department, became one of its commissioners. The commission's report in 1870, which he prepared, states that the encroachment of industries on the water supply was the reason for the establishment of the park.
politics of the city had been irrevocably altered with its consolidation in 1854.
Not only was the works at Fairmount no longer the sole supplier of water for the
city, but the political system grew more complex than the small group of merchants
that had been so interested in promoting the city and its waterworks. The opportunity
for political patronage did not go unnoticed in the Water Department's continual
need for unskilled workers, who were often new immigrants, Philadelphia's newest
voters. However, the first evidence of [Page 38] a major shift in management came
when Graff, Jr., relinquished his office as chief engineer at Fairmount in 1856,
dismayed by the new government then in power in the city. Following the brief
terms of Samuel Ogdin, Henry P. M. Birkinbine, and Isaac S. Cassin, Graff returned
to serve from 1867 to 1872. The chief engineers after 1872 had interests and abilities
more in the area of steam power, which had become the standard--as opposed to
experimental status--source of power for Philadelphia's pumping stations. The
knell for Fairmount came in 1899 when a report on the pollution in the river was
released. Although there had been laws against it for many years, industry had
continued using the river as a sewer. Pollution, together with deterioration of
the machinery when the inevitable abandonment of the works became apparent, spelled
the end of the active life of this pioneer waterworks. By 1909, when filtration
plants had been erected in other parts of the city to take over the duty, plans
for decommissioning Fairmount Water Works were begun.
The significance of the buildings of the Fairmount Water Works continued in the next fifty years as the Philadelphia Aquarium occupied the waterworks facility and helped the public become better acquainted with the habitat, breeding, and activities of freshwater and saltwater fish, especially those native to Pennsylvania. In 1911 this was a new concept, which had grown out of the exhibitions of fisheries at the world's fairs in Chicago in 1893 and St. Louis in 1904.
Under the direction of William E. Meehan, the Philadelphia Aquarium opened on Thanksgiving Day 1911, with nineteen small tanks set up in the engine house, and in December the first of regular lectures on marine life was given. The machinery was removed from both mill houses in 1912 and they were eventually refitted with the latest in aquarium equipment. In 1929 Philadelphia had one of the four largest aquariums in the world. In the early years, seals and sea lions frolicked in the forebay, much to the enjoyment of the public, but the animals became ill and later the forebay was filled in to become Aquarium Drive. Although the 1851 turbine and pump, together with the standpipe, remained in place, they were used only for a short period before repairs were necessary and city water was found to be purer and more beneficial for the fish than the untreated water from the then polluted Schuylkill River.
A few months after its opening, the aquarium was turned over to Fairmount Park and its history is a record of ups and downs as pleas for adequate funding were met with acceptance or rejection. The aquarium closed its doors at the end of December 1962, a victim of neglect and political maneuverings, despite the efforts of many dedicated parties to save it.
In the nineteenth century the small temples of Fairmount Water Works arranged at the water's edge had become a symbol of Philadelphia. Now what might be considered a twentieth-century symbol stands grouped on the top of Fairmount in the connected large temples that form the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The construction of the Museum was begun in 1919 on the site of the reservoirs on Fairmount, fulfilling a desire for a public art gallery, which had been proposed for various locations in the city since the 1876 Centennial exhibition. The monumental building of the Museum serves as one terminus of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, with City Hall at the other end. During the construction phase, the standpipe, along with the distribution arch, was blasted into a pile of rubble, although it had been delineated on the architect's drawings for the Museum complex.
In recent years the Fairmount Water Works has been recognized as a national treasure by the federal government and by two professional engineering societies. In 1975 the American Society of Civil Engineers declared Fairmount [Page 40] Waterworks a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark and on May 11, 1976, it was designated a National Historic Landmark by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior. In 1977 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers made the waterworks a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark. Despite its multiple-award status, the facility continued to deteriorate and in 1984 was included in the report to Congress by the Secretary of the Interior on damaged and threatened national landmarks.
Local Philadelphia institutions became interested in saving Fairmount Water Works even before its landmark designation. In a revival of the spirit of yesteryear when the Fairmount Water Works was a local spot of charm and beauty, efforts have been mounted to restore the buildings and the gardens to serve the public, with the added attractions of a restaurant and an interpretive center focusing on the history of the works and the importance of water to civilization. In 1974 the Junior League of Philadelphia began a campaign to restore and preserve the waterworks, and dedication to this goal has continued to the present. The Philadelphia Water Department and the Fairmount Park Commission have joined in the effort to restore this landmark facility to its former status as a prime recreational area. As part of the preservation activity, the Historic American Engineering Record made Fairmount Water Works a Summer Recording Project in 1978, and the resulting drawings together with historical reports on the technology and architecture of the works are deposited in the Library of Congress.  Through public and private funding, the small buildings for the Watering Committee and the caretaker have been restored, the old mill house has been stabilized, its interior cleared, its roof redecked, and the large central pavilion is undergoing restoration. Additional work will be done as funds are available.
William Rush's Allegory of the Waterworks depicts a gracious woman reclining, with one hand guiding a waterwheel, and the water of the river cascading from a cast-iron main behind her. It is this spirit that is now being summoned to provide Philadelphia with another necessity-appreciation of the city's past when Fairmount was recognized as the very best in hydraulic engineering and when the park and gardens were known throughout the world. The collection of images celebrating this fact makes history more vivid, and the viewer is transported to a time when wheels were turning at the Schuylkill's edge and water was glistening in the reservoirs atop Fairmount.
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1. John P. Sheldon to Eliza Whiting Sheldon, December 10, 1825; "A Description of Philadelphia in 1825," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 60, No. I (January 1936), p. 75.
2. Sam Bass Warner, Jr., The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods of Its Growth (Philadelphia, 1968), p.104
3. Eliza Cope Harrison, ed., Philadelphia Merchant: The Diary of Thomas P. Cope 1800-1851 (South Bend, Ind., 1978), p. 386.
4. See Eugene S. Ferguson. ed., Early Engineering Reminiscences (1815-40) of George Escol Sellers (Washington, D.C., 1965), p. 38.
5. Frederick Graff to Joseph S. Lewis. December 22. 1817. Watering Committee Archives, City Hall Annex, Room 523, Philadelphia.
6. Frederick Graff to the Select and Common Councils of the City of Philadelphia: The Memorial of Frederick Graff, April 17, 1833, p. 5. Watering Committee archives, City Hall Annex, Room 523, Philadelphia.
7. See Josiah White, Josiah White's History Given by Himself (n.p. ; reprint, Carbon County Board of Commissioners, Jim Thorpe, Pa, 1979), p 3.
8. Thomas Ewbank, A Descriptive and Historical Account of Hydraulic and Other Machines for Raising Water, 4th ed. (New York, 1850), p. 301.
9. Boy and Dolphin was replaced by a bronze casting of Rush's Allegory of the Schuylkill River in 1872. In 1936 the bronze was moved to the Philadelphia Museum of Art on loan from the Commissioners of Fairmount Park. The original wood version remained at its place at the side of the millrace until it became badly deteriorated and was removed about 1900.
10. Frances Trollope, Domestic Manners of the Americans (London. 1832), vol. 2, pp. 74-76.
11. Charles Dickens, American Notes for General Circulation (London and New York, 1842; reprint New York, 1985), p 89.
12. Emile E. Geyelin, "Growth of the Philadelphia Water Works," in Proceedings of the American Water Works Association (Philadelphia, 1891), p 21.
13. Mayor of Philadelphia v. Commissioners of Spring Garden. Pennsylvania State Reports, VIII, p. 363. Cited in Nelson Manfred Blake, Water for the Cities: A History of the Urban Water Supply Problem in the United States (Syracuse, N. Y., 1956). pp. 97-98.
14. Portions of the 1851 turbine remain in situ at the Fairmount Water Works.
15. Jane Mork Gibson, Historical Report, and Susan Stein, Architectural Report, Historic American Engineering Record Collection, Fairmount Water Works HAER PA-51, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Department, Room 338, Madison Building, Washington, D.C.